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Bibliography of Anesthetic Buffering Articles
Listed by Topic
(Links valid as of 19-JAN-2011)
Buffering and Anesthetic Latency
1. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/
   
2. Bavoux E, Benhamou D, Clavier N, & Perrachon N, Onset and Duration of Epidural Analgesia with pH-Adjusted Bupivacaine: Is the Change in pH the Difference? Anesthesiology, Vol. 69, No. 3A, P. 393 (1988).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Citation/1988/09010/onset_and_duration_ of_epidural_analgesia_with.392.aspx
   
3. Bedder MD, Kozody R, Craig DB, Comparison of Bupivacaine and Alkalinized Bupivacaine in Brachial Plexus Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 67, P. 48 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/67/1/48.long

   
4. Benlabed M, Jullien P, Guelmi K, Hamza J, Bonhomme L, Benhamou D, Alkalinization of 0.5% Lidocaine for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 15, No. 2, P. 59 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2176097

   
5. Candido KD, Winnie AP, Covino BG, Raza SM, Vasireddy AR, Masters RW, Addition of Bicarbonate to Plain Bupivacaine Does Not Significantly Alter the Onset or Duration of Plexus Anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 20, No. 2 P.
133 (1995).


Abstract of above article available online:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7605760

   
6. Capogna G, Celleno D, Laudano D, Giunta F, Alkalinization of local anesthetics. Which block, which local anesthetic? Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 20, No. 5, P. 369 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8519712
   
7. Chestnut DH, Beiger M, Bates JN, Choi WW, The Influence of pH-Adjusted Chloroprocaine on the Quality and Duration of Subsequent Epidural Bupivacaine Analgesia during Labor- A Randomized, Double-Blind Study, Anesthesiology,
Vol. 70, P. 437 (1989).


Abstract of above article available online: http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Citation/1988/09010/THE_INFLUENCE_OF_pH_ADJUSTED_2_CHLOROPROCAINE_ON.667.aspx
   
8. Cho KS, Shin YS, Kim JR, Park KW, Clinical Evaluation of Caudal Anesthesia with Carbonated Lidocaine, Journal of the Korean Society of Anesthesiology, Vol. 20, No. 5, P. 643 (1987).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.anesthesia.or.kr/judge/journal/search_index.php?year=1987&vol= 020&no=05&page=643
   
9. Chow M, Sia A, Koay C, Chan Y, Alkalinization of Lidocaine Does not Hasten the Onset of Axillary Brachial Plexus Block, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, P. 566 (1998).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/3/566.abstract?sid= ab3f9648-f29e-4063-9b8a-98493b8ba5ea

   
10. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract
   
11. Coventry DM, Todd JG, Alkalinisation of Bupivacaine for Sciatic Nerve Blockade, Anaesthesia, Vol. 44, P. 467 (1989).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2757151
   
12. De Nicola A, Sucre MJ, Onset, Duration and Blood Levels of Epidural Lidocaine
vs. Buffered Lidocaine
, IMRA, Vol. 12, No. 3 (2000).

   
13. DiFazio CA, Carron H, Grosslight KR, Moscicki JC, Bolding WR, Johns RA, Effect of Acute pH Modification of Lidocaine Local Anesthesia and Absorption, Anesthesiology, Vol. 63, No. 3A, P. A208 (1985).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Citation/1985/09001/EFFECT_OF_ACUTE_pH_ MODIFICATION_OF_LIDOCAINE_LOCAL.208.aspx

   
14. DiFazio CA, Carron H, Grosslight KR, Moscicki JC, Bolding WR, Johns RA, Comparison of pH-Adjusted Lidocaine Solutions for Epidural Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 65, P. 760 (1986).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/65/7/760.full.pdf+html

   
15. Fukuda T, Satop S, Naito H, Concentration- and pH- Dependent Effects of Local Anesthetics on Onset of Epidural Anesthesia, Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 4, P. 327 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15235964

   
16. Fukuda T, Naito H, The Effect of pH Adjustment of 1% Lidocaine on the Onset of Sensory and Motor Blockade of Epidural Anesthesia in Nonpregnant Gynecological Patients, Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 8, P. 293 (1994).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/t63t050t4xx36446/

   
17. Gaggero G, Meyer O, Wan Gessel E, Rifat K, Alkalinization of Lidocaine 2% Does Not Influence the Quality of Epidural Anaesthesia for Elective Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 42, No. 12, P. 1080 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8595681

   
18. Galindo A, pH-Adjusted Local Anesthetics: Clinical Experience, Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Vol. 8, No. 1, P. 35 (1983).

Full text of above article available for purchase at:
http://journals.lww.com/rapm/toc/1983/08010

   
19. Gormley WP, Hill DA, Murray JM, Fee JP, The Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine on Axillary Brachial Plexus Anaesthesia, Anaesthesia, Vol. 51, P. 185 (1996).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8779380

   
20. Gupta RP, Kapoor G, Safety and Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate versus Hyaluronidase in Peribulbar Anaesthesia, Medical Journal of the Armed Forces of India, Vol. 62, P. 116 (2006).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://medind.nic.in/maa/t06/i2/maat06i2p116.pdf

   
21. Hilgier M, Alkalinization of Bupivacaine for Brachial Plexus Block, Reg Anesth, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1985).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/1985/10020/Alkalinization_of_Bupivacaine_for_
Brachial_Plexus.2.aspx

   
22. Kanaya N, Imaizumi H, Matsumoto M, Namiki A, Tsunoda K, Evaluation of Alkalinized
Lidocaine Solution in Brachial Plexus Blockade
,
Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 5, No. 2, P. 128 (1991).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/fhqnkwuxc422clx9/

   
23. Kim T-H, Kim K-W, Kim C-H, A Clinical Study of Anesthetic Efficacy of Alkalinized Lidocaine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks, Journal of the Korean Association of Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Vol. 23, No. 1, P. 36 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.koreamed.org/SearchBasic.php?RID=0071JKAMPRS/2005.27.3.276&DT=1

   
24. Lee HJ, Jeong GW, Park NH, The Effect of pH Adjustment of Bupivacaine on Caudal Anesthesia, Korean Journal of Anesthesiology, Vol. 27, No. 3, P. 276 (2005).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.anesthesia.or.kr/judge/journal/search_index.php?year=1990&vol=023&no=
01&page=36

   
25. Liepert DJ, McMorland GH, Gambling DR, Kim J, Ross P, Comparison of Lidocaine CO2, Two Per Cent Lidocaine Hydrochloride and pH Adjusted Lidocaine Hydrochloride for Caesarean Section Anaesthesia, Canadian Journal of
Anaesthesia, Vol. 37, No. 3, P. 333 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2182205

   
26. McMorland GH, Douglas MJ, Jeffery WK, Ross PL, Axelson JE, Kim JH, Gambling DR, Robertson K, Effect of pH-Adjustment of Bupivacaine on Onset and Duration of Epidural Analgesia in Parturients, Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal
Vol. 33, No. 5, P. 537 (1986).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3021299

   
27. McMorland GH, Douglas MJ, Axelson J, Kim JH, Blair I, Ross PL, Gambling DR, Swenerton JE, The Effect of pH Adjustment of Bupivacaine on Onset and Duration of Epidural Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia,
Vol. 35, No. 5, P. 457 (1988).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/tk5442887g09252g/

   
28. Mehta R, Verma D, Gupta V, Gurwara A, To Study the Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride on Brachial Plexus Block, Indian Journal of Anaesthesiology, Vol. 47, No. 4, P. 283 (2003).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://medind.nic.in/iad/t03/i4/iadt03i4p283.pdf

   
29. Okamura RK, Reisner LS, Kalichman MW, Effects of Ph-Adjusted Lidocaine Solutions on the Compound Action Potential in Intact Rat Sciatic Nerves, Anesthesiology, Vol. 67, No. 3A, Page A281 (1987).

Preview and full text of the article available for purchase online:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Citation/1987/09001/Effects_of_Ph_Adjusted_ Lidocaine_Solutions_on_the.281.aspx

   
30. Ossipov MH, Harris SH, Spaulding TC, Potency and Duration of Action of Local Anesthetics are Diminished by Decreasing the pH of the Injected Solution in Peripheral Nerve Block, Pain, Vol. 30, Supp. 1, P. S384 (1987).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043959

   
31. Quinlan JJ, Oleksey K, Murphy FL, Alkalinization of Mepivacaine for Axillary Block, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 74, P. 371 (1992).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/74/3/371.short

   
32. Siler JN, Rosenberg H, Lidocaine Hydrochloride versus Lidocaine Bicarbonate for Epidural Anesthesia in Outpatients Undergoing Arthroscopic Surgery, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 2, P. 296 (1990).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://pubget.com/search?q=issn:0952-8180+vol:2+issue:5&from=2176794

   
33. Tackley RM, Coe AJ, Alkalinised Bupivacaine and Adrenaline for Epidural Caesarean Section, A comparison with 0.5% Bupivacaine, Obstetric Digest, Vol. 43, P. 1019 (1988).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://journals.lww.com/obstetricanesthesia/citation/1989/07000/alkalinised_bupivacaine
_and_adrenaline_for.42.aspx

   
34. Tetzlaff JE, Yoon HJ, O’HaraJ, Reaney J, Stein D, Grimes-Rice M, Alkalinization of Mepivacaine Accelerates Onset of Interscalene Block for Shoulder, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 15, P. 242 (1990).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/1990/15050/Alkalinization_of_Mepivacaine_
Accelerates_Onset_of.5.aspx

   
35. Jaichandran V, Vijaya L, George RJ, InderMohan B, Peribulbar Anesthesia for Cataract Surgery: Effect of Lidocaine Warming and Alkalinization on Injection Pain, Motor and Sensory Nerve Blockade, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology,
Vol. 58, No. 2, P. 105 (2010).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854439/?tool=pubmed

   
36. Verborgh C, Claeys MA, Camu C, Onset of Epidural Blockade After Plain or Alkalinized 0.5% Bupivacaine, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 73, P. 401 (1991).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/73/4/401.full.pdf+html

Buffering, Anesthetic Potency, and Dissolved CO2
1. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

   
2. Berrada R, Chassard D, Bryssine S, Berthier S, Bryssine B, Bouletreau P, In Vitro Effects of the Alkalinization of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 2% Lidocaine, Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, Vol. 13, no. 2, P. 165 (1994).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7818198

   
3. Bromage PR, Gertel M, Improved Brachial Plexus Blockade with Bupivacaine
Hydrochloride and Carbonated Lidocaine
, Anesthesia, Vol. 36, No. 5, P. 479 (1972).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Abstract/1972/05000/Improved_Brachial_
Plexus_Blockade_with_Bupivacaine.13.aspx

   
4. Catchlove RFH, The Influence of CO2 and pH on Local Anesthetic Action, Journal
of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapies
, Vol. 181, No. 2, P. 298 (1972).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/181/2/298.full.pdf+html

   
5. Condouris GA, Shakalis A, Potentiation of the Nerve-Depressant Effect of Local
Anesthetics by Carbon Dioxide
, Nature, Vol. 204, P. 57 (1964).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v204/n4953/pdf/204057a0.pdf

   
6. Curatolo M, Peterson-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Lauber R, Hogstrom H, Scaramozzino P, Luginbuhl M, Sieber TJ, Zbinden AM, Adding Sodium Bicarbonate to Lidocaine Enhances the Depth of Epidural Blockade, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, P.
341 (1998).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/2/341.full.pdf+html

   
7. Ibusuki S, Katsuki H, Takasaki M, The Effects of Extracellular pH with and without Bicarbonate on Intracellular Procaine Concentrations and Anesthetic Effects in Crayfish Giant Axons, Anesthesiology, Vol. 88, No. 6, P. 1549 (1998).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=1998&issue
=06000&article=00019&type=abstract

   
8. Martin AJ, pH Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, Anaesthesia, Vol. 45, P. 975 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2174653

   
9. Necheles H, Gerard RW, The Effect of Carbon Dioxide on Nerve, American Journal of Physiology, Vol. 93, P. 318 (1930).
   
10. Otsuguro K, Yasutake S, Yamaji Y, Ban M, Ohta T, Ito S, Why Does Carbon Dioxide produce Analgesia? AATEX Vol. 14, P. 101 (2007).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://altweb.jhsph.edu/bin/u/n/paper101.pdf

   
11. Raymond S, Wong K, Strichartz G, Mechanisms for Potentiation of Local Anesthetic by CO2: Bicarbonate Solutions, Anesthesiology, Vol. 71, No. 3A, P. A711 (1989).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Citation/1989/09001/Mechanisms_for_Potentiation _of_Local_Anesthetic.711.aspx

   
12. Wong K, Strichartz GR, Raymond SA, On the Mechanisms of Potentiation of Local Anesthetics by Bicarbonate Buffer: Drug Structure-Activity Studies on Isolated Peripheral Nerve, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 76, P. 131 (1993).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/76/1/131.long

Buffering and Depth of Analgesia
1. Arakawa M, Aoyama Y, Ohe Y, Epidural Bolus Injection with Alkalinized Lidocaine Improves Blockade of the First Sacral Segment - A Brief Report, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia Vol. 49, No. 6, P 566 (2002).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/b36206827q812411/

   
2. Arndt KA, Minimizing the Pain of Local Anesthesia, Journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery) Vol. 72, No. 5, P. 676 (1983).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
https://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/secure/pages/purchase.aspx?an=00006534-
198311000-00017

   
3. Chestnut DH, Geiger M, Bates JN, Choi WW, The Influence of pH-Adjusted 2-Chloroprocaine on the Quality and Duration of Subsequent Epidural Bupivacaine Analgesia During Labor: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study, Anesthesiology,
Vol. 70, No. 3, P. 437 (1989).

Full text of above article available for download free of charge:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=1989&issue= 03000&article=00013&type=abstract

   
4. Curatolo M, Peterson-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Lauber R, Hogstrom H, Scaramozzino P, Luginbuhl M, Sieber TJ, Zbinden AM, Adding Sodium Bicarbonate to Lidocaine Enhances the Depth of Epidural Blockade, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, P.
341 (1998).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/2/341.full.pdf+html

   
5. Gaggero G, Meyer O, Wan Gessel E, Rifat K, Alkalinization of Lidocaine 2% Does Not Influence the Quality of Epidural Anaesthesia for Elective Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 42, No. 12, P. 1080 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8595681

   
6. Mehta R, Verma DD, Gupta V, Burwara AK, To Study the Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride on Brachial Plexus Block, Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 47, No. 4, P. 283 (2003).

Full text of above article available for download online at no charge:
http://medind.nic.in/iad/t03/i4/iadt03i4p283.pdf

   
7. Roberts JE, MacLeod BA, Hollands RH, Improved Peribulbar Anaesthesia with Alkalinization and Hyaluronidase, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 40, No. 9, P. 835 (1993).

Full text of above article available for download online at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/273p5g41w774215u/fulltext.pdf

   
8. Siler JN, Rosenberg H, Lidocaine Hydrochloride versus Lidocaine Bicarbonate for Epidural Anesthesia in Outpatients Undergoing Arthroscopic Surgery, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 2, P. 296 (1990).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://pubget.com/search?q=issn:0952-8180+vol:2+issue:5&from=2176794

   
9. Tetzlaff JE, Yoon HJ, O’HaraJ, Reaney J, Stein D, Grimes-Rice M, Alkalinization of Mepivacaine Accelerates Onset of Interscalene Block for Shoulder Surgery, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 15, P. 242 (1990).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/1990/15050/Alkalinization_of_Mepivacaine_
Accelerates_Onset_of.5.aspx

Buffering and Diffusion of Anesthetic
1. Arakawa M, Aoyama Y, Ohe Y, Epidural Bolus Injection with Alkalinized Lidocaine Improves Blockade of the First Sacral Segment - A Brief Report, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia Vol. 49, No. 6, P 566 (2002).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/b36206827q812411/
   
2. Bedder, Kozody R, Craig DB, Comparison of Bupivacaine and Alkalinized Bupivacaine in Brachial Plexus Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 67, P. 48 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/67/1/48.long

   
3. Gaggero G, Meyer O, Wan Gessel E, Rifat K, Alkalinization of Lidocaine 2% Does Not Influence the Quality of Epidural Anaesthesia for Elective Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 42, No. 12, P. 1080 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8595681

   
4. Liepert DJ, McMorland GH, Gambling DR, Kim J, Ross P, Comparison of Lidocaine CO2, Two Per Cent Lidocaine Hydrochloride and pH Adjusted Lidocaine Hydrochloride for Caesarean Section Anaesthesia, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia,
Vol. 37, No. 3, P. 333 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2182205

   
5. Martin AJ, pH Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, Anaesthesia, Vol. 45, P. 975 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2174653

   
6. Sosa A, Salazar-Rodriguez, Velasco M, A Comparison on Alkalinization Induced Effect on Lidocaine Anesthetic Activity, RFM, Vol. 27, No. 1, P. 79 (2004).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge:
http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0798-046920040001000
15&lng=en&nrm=iso

   
7. Talu H, Yanyali A, Karbas L, Alp B, Caglar Y, Effect of Warming and Buffering Lidocaine on Pain During Facial Anesthesia, Annals of Ophthalmology, Vol. 33, No. 1. P. 43 (2001).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/hum/ao/2001/00000033/00000001/art00008

Buffering and Duration
1. Bartfield JM, Homer PJ, Ford DT, Sternklar P, Buffered Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic: An Investigation of Shelf Life, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 1, P. 16 (1992).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0644(05)82230-9

   
2. Berrada R, Chassard D, Bryssine S, Berthier S, Bryssine B, Bouletreau P, In Vitro Effects of the Alkalinization of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 2% Lidocaine, Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, Vol. 13, No. 2, P. 165 (1994).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7818198

   
3. Bonhomme L, Postaire E, Touratier S, Benhamou D, Martre-Sauvageon H, Preaux NM, Chemical Stability of Lignocaine (Lidocaine) and Adrenaline (Epinephrine) in pH-Adjusted Parenteral Solutions, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics,
Vol. 13, P. 257 (1988).

Summary and article for purchase available online:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2710.1988.tb00190.x/abstract

   
4. Buckley P, Neto GD, Fink BR, pH of Solution and Duration of Local Anesthetic Block, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 64, P. 477 (1985).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/64/5/477.long

   
5. Chestnut DH, Geiger M, Bates JN, Choi WW, The Influence of pH-Adjusted 2- Chloroprocaine on the Quality and Duration of Subsequent Epidural Bupivacaine Analgesia During Labor: A Randomized, Double-Blind Study, Anesthesiology,
Vol. 70, No. 3, P. 437 (1989).

Full text of above article available for download free of charge:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=
1989&issue=03000&article=00013&type=abstract

   
6. Gormley WP, Hill DA, Murray JM, Fee JPH, The Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine on Axillary Brachial Plexus Anaesthesia, Anaesthesia, Vol. 51, P. 185 (1996).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1996.tb07712.x/abstract

   
7. Hilgier M, Alkalinization of Bupivacaine for Brachial Plexus Block, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 10, No. 2 (1985).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/1985/10020/Alkalinization_of_Bupivacaine_for_
Brachial_Plexus.2.aspx

   
8. Mehta R, Verma D, Gupta V, Gurwara A, To Study the Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride, Indian Journal of Anaesthesiology, Vol. 47, No. 4, P. 283 (2003).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://medind.nic.in/iad/t03/i4/iadt03i4p283.pdf

   
9. Ozer H, Solak S, Oguz T, Ocguder A, Colakoglu T, Alkalinization of Local Anesthetics Prescribed for Pain Relief After Surgical Decompression of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, Vol. 13, No. 3, P. 285 (2005).

Full text of above article available for download online free of charge:
http://www.josonline.org/pdf/v13i3p285.pdf

   
10. Sinnot CJ, Garfield JM, Thalhammer JG, Strichartz GR, Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Lidocaine Decreases the Duration of Peripheral Nerve Block in the Rat, Anesthesiology, Vol. 93, No. 4 (2000).

Full text of above article available for download online free of charge:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Fulltext/2000/10000/Addition_of_Sodium
_Bicarbonate_to_Lidocaine.28.aspx

   
11. Tetzlaff JE, Yoon HJ, O’HaraJ, Reaney J, Stein D, Grimes-Rice M, Alkalinization of Mepivacaine Accelerates Onset of Interscalene Block for Shoulder Surgery, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 15, P. 242 (1990)

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/1990/15050/Alkalinization_of_Mepivacaine_
Accelerates_Onset_of.5.aspx

Buffering and Injection Pain
Buffered Bupivacaine

1. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

   
2. Jones JS, Plzak C, Wynn BN, Martin S, Effect of Temperature and pH Adjustment of Bupivacaine for Intradermal Anesthesia, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 2, P. 117 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

Buffered Chloroprocaine
1. Marica LS, O’Day T, Janosky JE, Nystrom EUM, Chloroprocaine is Less Painful than Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 94, P. 351 (2002).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/94/2/351.full.pdf+html

   
2. Lavin PA, Henderson CL, Vaghadia H, Non-Alkalinized and Alkalinized 2- Chloroprocaine vs. Lidocaine for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia During Outpatient Hand Surgery, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 46, P. 939 (1999).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/7w54874w24367w62/fulltext.pdf

   
3. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

Buffered Lidocaine Plain
1. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

   
2. Armel HE, Horowitz M, Alkalinization of Local Anesthesia with Sodium Bicarbonate - Preferred Method of Local Anesthesia, Urology, Vol. 43, No. 1, P. 101 (1994).

Full text of above article available for purchase and delivery by fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3882751

   
3. Arndt KA, Minimizing the Pain of Local Anesthesia, Journal of the American Society
of Plastic Surgeons (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery) Vol. 72, No. 5, P. 676 (1983).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
https://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/secure/pages/purchase.aspx?an=00006534-
198311000-00017

   
4. Ball EL, Sanjay P, Woodward A, Comparison of Buffered and Unbuffered Local Anaesthesia for Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Prospective Study, The Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery, Vol. 10, No. 2, P. 175 (2006).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.springerlink.com/content/fku2184752r28t36/

   
5. Bancroft JW, Benenati JF, Becker GJ, Katzen BT, Neutralized Lidocaine: Use in Pain Reduction in Local Anesthesia, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Vol. 3, No. 1, P. 107 (1992).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.jvir.org/article/S1051-0443%2892%2972200-3/abstract

   
6. Barnett TA, Kapp DS, Reduction of Pain and Local Complications When Buffered Lidocaine Solution is Used as a Local Anesthetic in Conjunction with Hyperthermia Treatments: Results of a Randomized Trial, International Journal of Radiation
Oncology, Biologics and Physics Vol. 23, No. 3, P. 585 (1992).

Full text of above article may be ordered online:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=4400865

   
7. Bartfield JM, Gennis P, Barbera J, Breuer B, Gallagher EJ, Buffered Versus Plain Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic for Simple Laceration Repair, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 12, P. 1387 (1990).

Abstract of the above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8381259

   
8. Bartfield JM, Homer PJ, Ford DT, Sternklar P, Buffered Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic: An Investigation of Shelf Life, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 1, P. 16 (1992).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0644(05)82230-9

   
9. Brogan GX, Biaruusso E, Hollander JE, Cassara G, Maranga MC, Thode HC, Comparison of Plain, Warmed, and Buffered Lidocaine for Anesthesia of Traumatic Wounds, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, P. 121 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
10. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract

   
11. Colaric KB, Overton DT, Moore K, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 4, P. 353 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
12. Connelly NR, Leonard R, Discomfort Associated with Regional Anesthetic Placement in Obstetrics: Does Alkalinization Help?, International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, Vol. 5, No. 2, P. 89 (1996).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
13. Cornelius P, Kendall J, Meek S, Rajan R, Alkalinisation of Lignocaine to Reduce the Pain of Digital Nerve Blockade, Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 5, P. 339 (1996).

Full text of above article available for review and download online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1342770/pdf/jaccidem00014-0035.pdf

   
14. Culp WC Jr, Yousaf M, Lowry B, McCowan TC, Culp WC, Pain and Efficacy of Local Anesthetics for Central Venous Access, Local and Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 2008, P. 11 (2008).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.dovepress.com/getfile.php?fileID=4252

   
15. Friedman HE, Jules KT, Springer K, Jennings M, Buffered Lidocaine Decreases the Pain of Digital Anesthesia in the Foot, Journal of the Am. Podiatric Medical Association, Vol. 87, No. 5, P. 219 (1997).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.japmaonline.org/cgi/reprint/87/5/219

   
16. Gershon RY, Mokriski BK, Matjasko MJ, Intradermal Anesthesia and Comparison of Intravenous Catheter Gauge, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 73, P. 469 (1991).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/73/4/469.full.pdf+html

   
17. Hayward CJ, Nafziger AN, Kohlhepp SJ, Bertino JS Jr, Investigation of Bioequivalence and Tolerability of Intramuscular Ceftriaxone Injections by Using 1% Lidocaine, Buffered Lidocaine, and Sterile Water Diluents, Antimicrobial Agents and
Chemotherapy
, Vol. 40, No. 2, P. 485 (1996).

Full text of above article available for download online, free of charge:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC163141/pdf/400485.pdf

   
18. Karcioglu O, Topacoglu H, Ayrik C, Ozucelik DN, Soysal S, Prilocaine versus Plain or Buffered Lidocaine for Local Anesthesia in Laceration Repair: Randomized Double-blind Comparison, Croatian Medical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 6, P. 716 (2003).

Full text of above article available for review online free of charge:
http://www.cmj.hr/2003/44/6/14652885.pdf

   
19. Kim T-H, Kim K-W, Kim C-H, A Clinical Study of Anesthetic Efficacy of Alkalinized Lidocaine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks, Journal of the Korean Association of Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Vol. 27, No. 3, P. 276 (2005).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.koreamed.org/SearchBasic.php?RID=0071JKAMPRS/2005.27.3.276&DT=1

   
20. Klein EJ, Shugerman RP, Leigh-Taylor K, Schneider C, Portscheller D, Koepsell T, Buffered Lidocaine: Analgesia for Intravenous Line Placement in Children, Pediatrics, Vol. 95, No. 5, P. 709 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/95/5/709

   
21. Korbon GA, Hurley DP, Williams GS, pH-Adjusted Lidocaine Does Not Sting, Anesthesiology, Vol. 66, P. 856 (1987).

Full text of above article available for download online, free of charge:
http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Citation/1987/06000/pH_adjusted_Lidocaine_
Does_Not__Sting_.38.aspx

   
22. Koscielniak-Nielsen ZJ, Stens-Pedersen HL, Kjaerbo EJ, Intra-Arterial Regional Anaesthesia for Hand Surgery with Alkalinized 0.5% Lignocaine, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandanavica, Vol. 39, No. 8, P. 1048 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1399-6576.1995.tb04227.x/abstract

   
23. Mader TJ, Playe SJ, Reducing the Pain of Local Anesthetic Infiltration: Warming and Buffering Have Synergistic Effect, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 3, P. 550 (1994).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
24. Marica LS, O’Day T, Janosky JE, Nystrom EUM, Chloroprocaine is Less Painful than Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 94, P. 351 (2002).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/94/2/351.full.pdf+html

   
25. Matsumoto AH, Reifsnyder AC, Hartwell GD, Angle JF, Selby JB Jr, Tegtmeyer CJ, Reducing the Discomfort of Lidocaine Administration Through pH Buffering, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Vol. 5, No. 1, P. 171 (1994).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
26. McGlone R, Bodenham A, Reducing the Pain of Intradermal Lignocaine Injection by pH Buffering, Archives of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 7, P. 65 (1990).

Full text of above article available for download online free of charge:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1285669/pdf/archemed00026-0009.pdf

   
27. McKay W, Morris R, Mushlin P, Sodium Bicarbonate Attenuates Pain on Skin Infiltration with Lidocaine, with or without Epinephrine, Anesthesia & Analgesia,
Vol. 66, P. 572 (1987).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/66/6/572.long

   
28. McNaughton C, Zhou C, Robert L, Storrow A, Kennedy R, A Randomized, Crossover Comparison of Injected Buffered Lidocaine, Lidocaine Cream, and No Analgesia for Peripheral Intravenous Cannula Insertion, Annlas of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 2, P. 214 (2009).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.annemergmed.com/article/s0196-0644(08)02182-3/fulltext

   
29. Nelson AL, Neutralizing pH of Lidocaine Reduces Pain During Norplant® System Insertion Procedure, Contraception, Vol. 51, No. 5, P. 299 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
30. Ong E, Lim N, Koay C, Towards a Pain-Free Venepuncture, Anaesthesia, Vol. 55, No. 3, P. 260 (2000).

Full text of above article available for download online free of charge:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2044.2000.01124.x/pdf

   
31. Orlinsky M, Hudson C, Chan L, Deslauriers R, Pain Comparison of Unbuffered Versus Buffered Lidocaine in Local Wound Infiltration, Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 4, P. 411 (1992).

Full text of above article available online for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
32. Palmon SC, Lloyd AT, Kirsch R, The Effect of Needle Gauge and Lidocaine pH on Pain During Intradermal Injection, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, No. 2, P. 379 (1998).

Full text of above article available online for download free of charge:
http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/2/379.full.pdf+html

   
33. Richtsmeier AJ, Hatcher JW, Buffered Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Prior to Hemodialysis, Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, P. 198 (1995).

Full text of above article available for download free of charge:
http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0885-3924/PII0885392494001244.pdf

   
34. Ruegg TA, Curran CR, Lamb T, Use of Buffered Lidocaine in Bone Marrow Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial, Oncology Nursing Forum, Vol. 36, No. 1, P. 52 (2009).

Full text of above article available for download online free of charge:
http://ons.metapress.com/content/937053k00627w056/

   
35. Sapin P, Petrozzi R, Dehmer GJ, Reduction in Injection Pain Using Buffered Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic Before Cardiac Catheterization, Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis, Vol. 23, No. 2, P. 100 (1991).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ccd.1810230206/abstract

   
36. Scarfone RJ, Jasani M, Gracely EJ, Pain of Local Anesthetics: Rate of Administration and Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 1, P. 36 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
37. Steinbrook RA, Hughes N, Fanciullo G, Manzi D, Ferrante FM, Effects of Alkalinization of Lidocaine on the Pain of Skin Infiltration and Intravenous Catheterization,
Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 5, No. 6, P. 456 (1993).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
38. Jaichandran V, Vijaya L, George RJ, InderMohan B, Peribulbar Anesthesia for Cataract Surgery: Effect of Lidocaine Warming and Alkalinization on Injection Pain, Motor and Sensory Nerve Blockade, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology,
Vol. 58, No. 2, P. 105 (2010).

Full text of above article available for review free of charge:
http://www.ijo.in/article.asp?issn=0301-4738;year=2010;volume=58;issue=2;spage=
105;epage=108;aulast=Jaichandran

   
39. Watts AC, Gaston P, Hooper G, Randomized Trial of Buffered Versus Plain Lidocaine for Local Anaesthesia in Open Carpal Tunnel Decompression, Journal of Hand Surgery, Vol. 29, No. 1, P. 30 (2004).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.jhs-euro.com/content/29/1/30.abstract

   
40. Xia Y, Chen E, Tibbits DL, Reilley TE, McSweeney TD, Comparison of Effects of Lidocaine Hydrochloride, Buffered Lidocaine, Diphenhydramine, and Normal Saline After Intradermal Injection, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 14, No. 5,
P. 339 (2002).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
41. Yang CH, Hsu HC, Shen SC, Juan WH, Hong HS, Chen CH, Warm and Neutral Tumescent Anesthetic Solutions Are Essential Factors for a Less Painful Injection, Dermatologic Surgery, Vol. 32, No. 9, P. 1119 (2006).

Full text of above article available for purchase and delivery via fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18168510

Buffered Lidocaine with Epinephrine
1. Bowles WH, Frysh H, Emmons R, Clinical Evaluation of Buffered Local Anesthetic, General Dentistry, Vol. 43, No. 2, P. 182 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9564364

   
2. Burns CA, Ferris G, Feng C, Cooper JZ, Brown MD, Decreasing the Pain of Local Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind Comparison of Buffered, Premixed 1% Lidocaine with Epinephrine Versus 1% Lidocaine Freshly Mixed with Epinephrine,
Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. 54, No. 1, P. 128 (2006).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
3. Carvalho B, Fuller A, Brummel C, Cohen SE, Local Infiltration of Epinephrine- Containing Lidocaine with Bicarbonate Reduces Superficial Bleeding and Pain During Labor Epidural Catheter Insertion: A Randomized Trial, International
Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, Vol. 16, No. 2, P. 116 (2007).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:
http://www.obstetanesthesia.com/article/S0959-289X(06)00196-8/pdf

   
4. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract

   
5. Crose V, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering JIDA, V.70, No. 2, P. 24 (1991).

Full text of above article available for purchase and delivery by fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3882751

   
6. Larson PO, Ragi G, Swandby M, Darcey B, Polzin G, Carey P, Stability of Buffered Lidocaine and Epinephrine Used for Local Anesthesia, Journal of Dermatologic
Surgery and Oncology, Vol. 17, No. 5, P. 411 (1991).

Abstract of above article:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2030202

   
7. Lugo-Janer G, Padial M, Sánchez JL, Less Painful Alternatives for Local Anesthesia, Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, Vol. 19, No. 3, P. 237 (1993).

Full text of the article is available for purchase online with delivery via fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=4649078

   
8. Martin AJ, pH Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, Anaesthesia, Vol. 45, P. 975 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2174653

   
9. Masters JE, Randomized Control Trial of pH Buffered Lignocaine with Adrenaline in Outpatient Operations, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 51, P 385 (1998).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
10. Metzinger SE, Rigby PL, Bailey DJ, Brousse RG, Local Anesthesia in Blepharoplasty: A New Look? Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 87, No. 2, P. 225(1994).

Full text of the article is available for purchase online with delivery via fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=11201319

   
11. Narváez J, Wessels I, Bacon G, Chin VR, Baqai WK, Zimmerman GJ, Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Short-Term Complications When Using Buffered or Unbuffered Lidocaine 1% With Epinephrine for Blepharoplasty Surgery,
Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 26, No. 1, P. 33 (2010).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:
http://journals.lww.com/op-rs/Abstract/2010/01000/Prospective_Randomized_Evaluation_
of_Short_Term.9.aspx

   
12. Samdal F, Arctander K, Skolleborg KC, Amland PF, Alkalisation of Lignocaine- Adrenaline Reduces the Amount of Pain During Subcutaneous Injection of Local Anaesthetic, Scandanavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand
Surgery, Vol. 28, No. 1, P. 33 (1994).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:
http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~content=a785304409~fulltext=713240930
~frm=content

   
13. Stewart JH, Cole GW, Klein JA, Neutralized Lidocaine with Epinephrine for Local Anesthesia, Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, Vol. 16, No. 9, P. 842 (1989).

Full text of above article available for purchase and delivery by e-mail or fax: http://www4.infotrieve.com/search/databases/AFResults.asp?SR=1&QR=neutralized%
20lidocaine%20with%20epinephrine%20for%20local%20anesthesia

   
14. Stewart JH, Chinn S, Cole GW, Klein JA, Neutralized Lidocaine with Epinephrine for Local Anesthesia II, Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, Vol. 15, No. 10, P. 1081 (1990).

Full text of above article available for purchase and delivery by e-mail or fax: http://www4.infotrieve.com/search/databases/AFResults.asp?SR=1&QR=neutralized%
20lidocaine%20with%20epinephrine%20for%20local%20anesthesia%20II

   
15. Vossinakis IC, Stavroulaki P, Paleochorlidis I, Badras LS, Reducing the Pain Associated with Local Anaesthetic Infiltration for Open Carpal Tunnel Decompression, Journal of Hand Surgery (British Volume), Vol. 29B, No. 4, P. 399 (2004).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
16. Whitcomb M, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1 : 100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks,
Anesthesia Progress, Vol. 57, No. 2, P. 59 (2010).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://www.anesthesiaprogress.org/doi/full/10.2344/0003-3006-57.2.59

   
17. Yang CH, Hsu HC, Shen SC, Juan WH, Hong HS, Chen CH, Warm and Neutral Tumescent Anesthetic Solutions Are Essential Factors for a Less Painful Injection, Dermatologic Surgery, Vol. 32, No. 9, P. 1119 (2006).

Full text of above article available for purchase and delivery via fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=18168510

   
18. Younis I, Bhutiani RP, Taking the ‘Ouch’ Out - Effect of Buffering Commercial Xylocaine on Infiltration and Procedure Pain – A Prospective, Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England,
Vol. 86, No. 3, P. 213 (2004).

Available for download free of charge:
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1964174/pdf/15140310.pdf

   
19. Yuen VH, Dolman PJ, Comparison of Three Modified Lidocaine Solutions for Use in Eyelid Anesthesia, Ophthalmic Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 15, No. 2, P. 143 (1999).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://journals.lww.com/op-rs/secure/pages/purchase.aspx?an=00002341-199903000-00016

Buffered Mepivacaine
1. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:
http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract

   
2. Crose VW, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration through pH Buffering, JIDA, V.70, No. 2, P. 24 (1991).

Full text of above article available for purchase and delivery by fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=3882751

Buffered Prilocaine
1. Ozer H, Solak S, Oguz T, Ocguder A, Colakoglu T, Babacan, Alkalinisation of Local Anesthetics Prescribed for Pain Relief After Surgical Decompression of Carpal Tunnl Syndrome, Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery, Vol. 13, No. 3, P. 285 (2005).

Full text of above article available for download, free of charge: http://www.josonline.org/pdf/v13i3p285.pdf

Metastudies on Buffering and Injection Pain
1. Boyd R, Plain or Buffered Lignocaine for Local Anesthetic, Best Evidence Topics, BET No. 102 (2001).

Full text of above article available for review online:
http://www.bestbets.org/bets/bet.php?id=102

   
2. Cepeda MS, Tzortzopoulou A, Thackrey M, Hudcova J, Arora Gandhi P, Schumann R., Adjusting the pH of Lidocaine for Reducing Pain on Injection, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Vol. 12, Article No. CD006581, 8 December 2010.

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/o/cochrane/clsysrev/articles/CD006581/frame.html

   
3. Davies RJ, Buffering the Pain of Local Anaesthetics: A Systematic Review, Emergency Medicine, Vol. 15, P. 81 (2003).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1442-2026.2003.00413.x/full

   
4. Erramouspe J, Buffering Local Anesthetic Solutions with Sodium Bicarbonate: Literature Review and Commentary, Hospital Pharmacy, Vol. 31, No. 1 0, P. 1275 (1996).

Available for purchase online and delivery by fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=10598351

   
5. Erramouspe J, Buffering Local Anesthetic Solutions with Sodium Bicarbonate: Literature Review and Commentary, Hospital Pharmacy, Vol. 31, No. 10, P. 1275 (1996).

Available for purchase online and delivery by fax or e-mail:
http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=10598351

   
6. Hanna MN, Elhassan A, Veloso PM, Lesley M, Lissauer J, Richman JM, Wu CL, Efficacy of Bicarbonate in Decreasing Pain on Intradermal Injection of Local Anesthetics, A Meta-Analysis, Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, Vol. 34,
No 2, P. 122 (2009).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:
http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/2009/03000/Efficacy_of_Bicarbonate_in_
Decreasing_Pain_on.8.aspx

   
7. Tran S, Middleton RK, Buffered Lidocaine in Local Anesthesia, The Annals of Pharmacotherapy, Vol. 24, No. 12, P. 1180 (1990).

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http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=11354124

Buffering and Warming
1. Brogan GX, Biaruusso E, Hollander JE, Cassara G, Maranga MC, Thode HC, Comparison of Plain, Warmed, and Buffered Lidocaine for Anesthesia of Traumatic Wounds, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, P. 121 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
2. Colaric KB, Overton DT, Moore K, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 4, P. 353 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
3. Mader TJ, Playe SJ, Reducing the Pain of Local Anesthetic Infiltration: Warming and Buffering Have Synergistic Effect, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 23,
No. 3, P. 550 (1994).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:
http://www.sciencedirect.com

   
4. Fitton AR, Ragbir M, Milling AP, The Use of pH Adjusted Lignocaine in Controlling Operative Pain in the Day Surgery Unit: A Prospective Randomized Trial, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 49, P. 404 (1996).

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