Science

Bibliography of Anesthetic Buffering Articles

Listed by Topic (Links valid as of 26-JUN-2019)

 

Buffering and Anesthetic Latency

 

1.Sereen Kattan, Su-Min Lee, Elliot V. Hersh, Bekir Karabucak, Efficacy of Buffered Local Anesthetics, The Journal of the American Dental Association, Volume 150, Issue 3, March 2019, Pages 165-177

Abstract of above article available online, full text available for purchase:https://jada.ada.org/article/S0002-8177(18)30786-4/fulltext

 

2. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

 

3. Bedder MD, Kozody R, Craig DB, Comparison of Bupivacaine and Alkalinized Bupivacaine in Brachial Plexus Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 67, P. 48 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/67/1/48.long

 

4. Benlabed M, Jullien P, Guelmi K, Hamza J, Bonhomme L, Benhamou D, Alkalinization of 0.5% Lidocaine for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 15, No. 2, P. 59 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2176097

 

5. Candido KD, Winnie AP, Covino BG, Raza SM, Vasireddy AR, Masters RW, Addition of Bicarbonate to Plain Bupivacaine Does Not Significantly Alter the Onset or Duration of Plexus Anesthesia, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 20, No. 2 P.

133 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7605760

 

6. Capogna G, Celleno D, Laudano D, Giunta F, Alkalinization of local anesthetics. Which block, which local anesthetic? Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 20, No. 5, P. 369 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8519712

 

7. Chow M, Sia A, Koay C, Chan Y, Alkalinization of Lidocaine Does not Hasten the Onset of Axillary Brachial Plexus Block, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, P. 566 (1998).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/3/566.abstract?sid= ab3f9648-f29e-4063-9b8a-98493b8ba5ea

 

8. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract

 

9. Coventry DM, Todd JG, Alkalinisation of Bupivacaine for Sciatic Nerve Blockade, Anaesthesia, Vol. 44, P. 467 (1989).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2757151

 

10. DiFazio CA, Carron H, Grosslight KR, Moscicki JC, Bolding WR, Johns RA, Comparison of pH-Adjusted Lidocaine Solutions for Epidural Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 65, P. 760 (1986).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/65/7/760.full.pdf+html

 

11. Fukuda T, Satop S, Naito H, Concentration- and pH- Dependent Effects of Local Anesthetics on Onset of Epidural Anesthesia, Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 4, P. 327 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15235964

 

12. Fukuda T, Naito H, The Effect of pH Adjustment of 1% Lidocaine on the Onset of Sensory and Motor Blockade of Epidural Anesthesia in Nonpregnant Gynecological Patients, Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 8, P. 293 (1994).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge: http://www.springerlink.com/content/t63t050t4xx36446/

 

13. Gaggero G, Meyer O, Wan Gessel E, Rifat K, Alkalinization of Lidocaine 2% Does Not Influence the Quality of Epidural Anaesthesia for Elective Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 42, No. 12, P. 1080 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8595681

 

 

14. Gormley WP, Hill DA, Murray JM, Fee JP, The Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine on Axillary Brachial Plexus Anaesthesia, Anaesthesia, Vol. 51, P. 185 (1996).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8779380

 

 

15. Gupta RP, Kapoor G, Safety and Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate versus Hyaluronidase in Peribulbar Anaesthesia, Medical Journal of the Armed Forces of India, Vol. 62, P. 116 (2006).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge: http://medind.nic.in/maa/t06/i2/maat06i2p116.pdf

 

16. Kanaya N, Imaizumi H, Matsumoto M, Namiki A, Tsunoda K, Evaluation of Alkalinized

Lidocaine Solution in Brachial Plexus Blockade, Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 5, No. 2, P. 128 (1991).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/fhqnkwuxc422clx9/

 

 

17. Liepert DJ, McMorland GH, Gambling DR, Kim J, Ross P, Comparison of Lidocaine CO2, Two Per Cent Lidocaine Hydrochloride and pH Adjusted Lidocaine Hydrochloride for Caesarean Section Anaesthesia, Canadian Journal of

Anaesthesia, Vol. 37, No. 3, P. 333 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2182205

 

 

18. McMorland GH, Douglas MJ, Jeffery WK, Ross PL, Axelson JE, Kim JH, Gambling DR, Robertson K, Effect of pH-Adjustment of Bupivacaine on Onset and Duration of Epidural Analgesia in Parturients, Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society Journal

Vol. 33, No. 5, P. 537 (1986).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3021299

 

 

19. McMorland GH, Douglas MJ, Axelson J, Kim JH, Blair I, Ross PL, Gambling DR, Swenerton JE, The Effect of pH Adjustment of Bupivacaine on Onset and Duration of Epidural Anaesthesia for Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia,

Vol. 35, No. 5, P. 457 (1988).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge: http://www.springerlink.com/content/tk5442887g09252g/

 

 

20. Mehta R, Verma D, Gupta V, Gurwara A, To Study the Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride on Brachial Plexus Block, Indian Journal of Anaesthesiology, Vol. 47, No. 4, P. 283 (2003).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge: http://medind.nic.in/iad/t03/i4/iadt03i4p283.pdf

 

 

21. Ossipov MH, Harris SH, Spaulding TC, Potency and Duration of Action of Local Anesthetics are Diminished by Decreasing the pH of the Injected Solution in Peripheral Nerve Block, Pain, Vol. 30, Supp. 1, P. S384 (1987).

Full text of above article available for purchase online: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043959

 

 

22. Quinlan JJ, Oleksey K, Murphy FL, Alkalinization of Mepivacaine for Axillary Block, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 74, P. 371 (1992).

Abstract of above article available online: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/74/3/371.short

 

 

23. Tackley RM, Coe AJ, Alkalinised Bupivacaine and Adrenaline for Epidural Caesarean Section, A comparison with 0.5% Bupivacaine, Obstetric Digest, Vol. 43, P. 1019 (1988).

Full text of above article available for purchase online: http://journals.lww.com/obstetricanesthesia/citation/1989/07000/alkalinised_bupivacaine_and_adrenaline_for.42.aspx

 

 

24. Jaichandran V, Vijaya L, George RJ, InderMohan B, Peribulbar Anesthesia for Cataract Surgery: Effect of Lidocaine Warming and Alkalinization on Injection Pain, Motor and Sensory Nerve Blockade, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology,

Vol. 58, No. 2, P. 105 (2010).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2854439/?tool=pubmed

 

 

25. Verborgh C, Claeys MA, Camu C, Onset of Epidural Blockade After Plain or Alkalinized 0.5% Bupivacaine, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 73, P. 401 (1991).

Full text of above article available for purchase online: http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/73/4/401.full.pdf+html

 

 

 

Buffering, Anesthetic Potency, and Dissolved CO2

 

1. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

 

2. Berrada R, Chassard D, Bryssine S, Berthier S, Bryssine B, Bouletreau P, In Vitro Effects of the Alkalinization of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 2% Lidocaine, Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, Vol. 13, no. 2, P. 165 (1994).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7818198

 

 

3. Bromage PR, Gertel M, Improved Brachial Plexus Blockade with Bupivacaine  Hydrochloride and Carbonated Lidocaine, Anesthesia, Vol. 36, No. 5, P. 479 (1972).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://journals.lww.com/anesthesiology/Abstract/1972/05000/Improved_Brachial_Plexus_Blockade_with_Bupivacaine.13.aspx

 

 

4. Catchlove RFH, The Influence of CO2 and pH on Local Anesthetic Action, Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapies, Vol. 181, No. 2, P. 298 (1972).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/181/2/298.full.pdf+html

 

 

5. Condouris GA, Shakalis A, Potentiation of the Nerve-Depressant Effect of Local Anesthetics by Carbon Dioxide, Nature, Vol. 204, P. 57 (1964).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v204/n4953/pdf/204057a0.pdf

 

 

6. Curatolo M, Peterson-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Lauber R, Hogstrom H, Scaramozzino P, Luginbuhl M, Sieber TJ, Zbinden AM, Adding Sodium Bicarbonate to Lidocaine Enhances the Depth of Epidural Blockade, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, P. 341 (1998).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/2/341.full.pdf+html

 

 

7. Martin AJ, pH Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, Anaesthesia, Vol. 45, P. 975 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2174653

 

 

8. Wong K, Strichartz GR, Raymond SA, On the Mechanisms of Potentiation of Local Anesthetics by Bicarbonate Buffer: Drug Structure-Activity Studies on Isolated Peripheral Nerve, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 76, P. 131 (1993).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/76/1/131.long

 

Buffering and Depth of Analgesia

 

1. Arakawa M, Aoyama Y, Ohe Y, Epidural Bolus Injection with Alkalinized Lidocaine Improves Blockade of the First Sacral Segment - A Brief Report, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia Vol. 49, No. 6, P 566 (2002).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/b36206827q812411/

 

 

2. Arndt KA, Minimizing the Pain of Local Anesthesia, Journal of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery) Vol. 72, No. 5, P. 676 (1983).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

https://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/secure/pages/purchase.aspx?an=00006534-198311000-00017

 

4. Curatolo M, Peterson-Felix S, Arendt-Nielsen L, Lauber R, Hogstrom H, Scaramozzino P, Luginbuhl M, Sieber TJ, Zbinden AM, Adding Sodium Bicarbonate to Lidocaine Enhances the Depth of Epidural Blockade, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, P. 341 (1998).

Full text of above article available for review online at no charge:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/2/341.full.pdf+html

 

 

5. Gaggero G, Meyer O, Wan Gessel E, Rifat K, Alkalinization of Lidocaine 2% Does Not Influence the Quality of Epidural Anaesthesia for Elective Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 42, No. 12, P. 1080 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8595681

 

 

6. Mehta R, Verma DD, Gupta V, Burwara AK, To Study the Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride on Brachial Plexus Block, Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 47, No. 4, P. 283 (2003).

Full text of above article available for download online at no charge:

http://medind.nic.in/iad/t03/i4/iadt03i4p283.pdf

 

 

7. Roberts JE, MacLeod BA, Hollands RH, Improved Peribulbar Anaesthesia with Alkalinization and Hyaluronidase, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 40, No. 9, P. 835 (1993).

Full text of above article available for download online at no charge:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/273p5g41w774215u/fulltext.pdf

 

 

8. Siler JN, Rosenberg H, Lidocaine Hydrochloride versus Lidocaine Bicarbonate for Epidural Anesthesia in Outpatients Undergoing Arthroscopic Surgery, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 2, P. 296 (1990).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://pubget.com/search?q=issn:0952-8180+vol:2+issue:5&from=2176794

 

 

9. Tetzlaff JE, Yoon HJ, O’HaraJ, Reaney J, Stein D, Grimes-Rice M, Alkalinization of Mepivacaine Accelerates Onset of Interscalene Block for Shoulder Surgery, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 15, P. 242 (1990).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/1990/15050/Alkalinization_of_Mepivacaine_Accelerates_Onset_of.5.aspx

 

 

Buffering and Diffusion of Anesthetic

 

1. Arakawa M, Aoyama Y, Ohe Y, Epidural Bolus Injection with Alkalinized Lidocaine Improves Blockade of the First Sacral Segment - A Brief Report, Canadian Journal of Anesthesia Vol. 49, No. 6, P 566 (2002).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/b36206827q812411/

 

2. Bedder, Kozody R, Craig DB, Comparison of Bupivacaine and Alkalinized Bupivacaine in Brachial Plexus Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 67, P. 48 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/67/1/48.long

 

 

3. Gaggero G, Meyer O, Wan Gessel E, Rifat K, Alkalinization of Lidocaine 2% Does Not Influence the Quality of Epidural Anaesthesia for Elective Caesarean Section, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 42, No. 12, P. 1080 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8595681

 

 

4. Liepert DJ, McMorland GH, Gambling DR, Kim J, Ross P, Comparison of Lidocaine CO2, Two Per Cent Lidocaine Hydrochloride and pH Adjusted Lidocaine Hydrochloride for Caesarean Section Anaesthesia, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 37, No. 3, P. 333 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2182205

 

 

5. Martin AJ, pH Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, Anaesthesia, Vol. 45, P. 975 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/217465

 

Buffering and Duration

 

1. Bartfield JM, Homer PJ, Ford DT, Sternklar P, Buffered Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic: An Investigation of Shelf Life, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 1, P. 16 (1992).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0644(05)82230-9

 

 

2. Berrada R, Chassard D, Bryssine S, Berthier S, Bryssine B, Bouletreau P, In Vitro Effects of the Alkalinization of 0.25% Bupivacaine and 2% Lidocaine, Ann Fr Anesth Reanim, Vol. 13, No. 2, P. 165 (1994).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7818198

 

 

3. Bonhomme L, Postaire E, Touratier S, Benhamou D, Martre-Sauvageon H, Preaux NM, Chemical Stability of Lignocaine (Lidocaine) and Adrenaline (Epinephrine) in pH-Adjusted Parenteral Solutions, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy & Therapeutics,

Vol. 13, P. 257 (1988).

Summary and article for purchase available online:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2710.1988.tb00190.x/abstract

 

 

4. Buckley P, Neto GD, Fink BR, pH of Solution and Duration of Local Anesthetic Block, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 64, P. 477 (1985).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/64/5/477.long

 

 

5. Gormley WP, Hill DA, Murray JM, Fee JPH, The Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine on Axillary Brachial Plexus Anaesthesia, Anaesthesia, Vol. 51, P. 185 (1996).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2044.1996.tb07712.x/abstract

 

 

6. Mehta R, Verma D, Gupta V, Gurwara A, To Study the Effect of Alkalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride, Indian Journal of Anaesthesiology, Vol. 47, No. 4, P. 283 (2003).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://medind.nic.in/iad/t03/i4/iadt03i4p283.pdf

 

 

Buffering and Injection Pain

 

Buffered Bupivacaine

1. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

 

 

2. Jones JS, Plzak C, Wynn BN, Martin S, Effect of Temperature and pH Adjustment of Bupivacaine for Intradermal Anesthesia, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 2, P. 117 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

Buffered Chloroprocaine

1. Marica LS, O’Day T, Janosky JE, Nystrom EUM, Chloroprocaine is Less Painful than Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 94, P. 351 (2002).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/94/2/351.full.pdf+html

 

 

2. Lavin PA, Henderson CL, Vaghadia H, Non-Alkalinized and Alkalinized 2- Chloroprocaine vs. Lidocaine for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia During Outpatient Hand Surgery, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 46, P. 939 (1999).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/7w54874w24367w62/fulltext.pdf

 

 

3. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

 

Buffered Lidocaine Plain

1. Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Vol. 39, P. 387 (1992).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/43616778m7243675/

 

 

2. Arndt KA, Minimizing the Pain of Local Anesthesia, Journal of the American Society

of Plastic Surgeons (Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery) Vol. 72, No. 5, P. 676 (1983).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

https://journals.lww.com/plasreconsurg/secure/pages/purchase.aspx?an=00006534-198311000-00017

 

 

3. Ball EL, Sanjay P, Woodward A, Comparison of Buffered and Unbuffered Local Anaesthesia for Inguinal Hernia Repair: A Prospective Study, The Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery, Vol. 10, No. 2, P. 175 (2006).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/fku2184752r28t36/

 

 

4. Bancroft JW, Benenati JF, Becker GJ, Katzen BT, Neutralized Lidocaine: Use in Pain Reduction in Local Anesthesia, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Vol. 3, No. 1, P. 107 (1992).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.jvir.org/article/S1051-0443%2892%2972200-3/abstract

 

 

5. Bartfield JM, Gennis P, Barbera J, Breuer B, Gallagher EJ, Buffered Versus Plain Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic for Simple Laceration Repair, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 12, P. 1387 (1990).

Abstract of the above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8381259

 

 

6. Bartfield JM, Homer PJ, Ford DT, Sternklar P, Buffered Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic: An Investigation of Shelf Life, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 21, No. 1, P. 16 (1992).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0644(05)82230-9

 

 

7. Brogan GX, Biaruusso E, Hollander JE, Cassara G, Maranga MC, Thode HC, Comparison of Plain, Warmed, and Buffered Lidocaine for Anesthesia of Traumatic Wounds, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, P. 121 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

8. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract

 

 

9. Colaric KB, Overton DT, Moore K, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 4, P. 353 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

10. Connelly NR, Leonard R, Discomfort Associated with Regional Anesthetic Placement in Obstetrics: Does Alkalinization Help?, International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, Vol. 5, No. 2, P. 89 (1996).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

11. Cornelius P, Kendall J, Meek S, Rajan R, Alkalinisation of Lignocaine to Reduce the Pain of Digital Nerve Blockade, Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 5, P. 339 (1996).

Full text of above article available for review and download online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1342770/pdf/jaccidem00014-0035.pdf

 

 

12. Culp WC Jr, Yousaf M, Lowry B, McCowan TC, Culp WC, Pain and Efficacy of Local Anesthetics for Central Venous Access, Local and Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 2008, P. 11 (2008).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.dovepress.com/getfile.php?fileID=4252

 

 

13. Gershon RY, Mokriski BK, Matjasko MJ, Intradermal Anesthesia and Comparison of Intravenous Catheter Gauge, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 73, P. 469 (1991).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/73/4/469.full.pdf+html

 

 

14. Hayward CJ, Nafziger AN, Kohlhepp SJ, Bertino JS Jr, Investigation of Bioequivalence and Tolerability of Intramuscular Ceftriaxone Injections by Using 1% Lidocaine, Buffered Lidocaine, and Sterile Water Diluents, Antimicrobial Agents and

Chemotherapy, Vol. 40, No. 2, P. 485 (1996).

Full text of above article available for download online, free of charge:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC163141/pdf/400485.pdf

 

 

158. Karcioglu O, Topacoglu H, Ayrik C, Ozucelik DN, Soysal S, Prilocaine versus Plain or Buffered Lidocaine for Local Anesthesia in Laceration Repair: Randomized Double-blind Comparison, Croatian Medical Journal, Vol. 44, No. 6, P. 716 (2003).

Full text of above article available for review online free of charge:

http://www.cmj.hr/2003/44/6/14652885.pdf

 

 

16. Klein EJ, Shugerman RP, Leigh-Taylor K, Schneider C, Portscheller D, Koepsell T, Buffered Lidocaine: Analgesia for Intravenous Line Placement in Children, Pediatrics, Vol. 95, No. 5, P. 709 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/95/5/709

 

 

17. Koscielniak-Nielsen ZJ, Stens-Pedersen HL, Kjaerbo EJ, Intra-Arterial Regional Anaesthesia for Hand Surgery with Alkalinized 0.5% Lignocaine, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandanavica, Vol. 39, No. 8, P. 1048 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1399-6576.1995.tb04227.x/abstract

 

 

18. Mader TJ, Playe SJ, Reducing the Pain of Local Anesthetic Infiltration: Warming and Buffering Have Synergistic Effect, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 23, No. 3, P. 550 (1994).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

19. Marica LS, O’Day T, Janosky JE, Nystrom EUM, Chloroprocaine is Less Painful than Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Anesthesia, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 94, P. 351 (2002).

Full text of above article available for download at no charge:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/94/2/351.full.pdf+html

 

 

20. Matsumoto AH, Reifsnyder AC, Hartwell GD, Angle JF, Selby JB Jr, Tegtmeyer CJ, Reducing the Discomfort of Lidocaine Administration Through pH Buffering, Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Vol. 5, No. 1, P. 171 (1994).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

21. McGlone R, Bodenham A, Reducing the Pain of Intradermal Lignocaine Injection by pH Buffering, Archives of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 7, P. 65 (1990).

Full text of above article available for download online free of charge:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1285669/pdf/archemed00026-0009.pdf

 

 

22. McKay W, Morris R, Mushlin P, Sodium Bicarbonate Attenuates Pain on Skin Infiltration with Lidocaine, with or without Epinephrine, Anesthesia & Analgesia,

Vol. 66, P. 572 (1987).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/66/6/572.long

 

 

23. McNaughton C, Zhou C, Robert L, Storrow A, Kennedy R, A Randomized, Crossover Comparison of Injected Buffered Lidocaine, Lidocaine Cream, and No Analgesia for Peripheral Intravenous Cannula Insertion, Annlas of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 54, No. 2, P. 214 (2009).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.annemergmed.com/article/s0196-0644(08)02182-3/fulltext

 

 

24. Nelson AL, Neutralizing pH of Lidocaine Reduces Pain During Norplant® System Insertion Procedure, Contraception, Vol. 51, No. 5, P. 299 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

25. Ong E, Lim N, Koay C, Towards a Pain-Free Venepuncture, Anaesthesia, Vol. 55, No. 3, P. 260 (2000).

Full text of above article available for download online free of charge:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2044.2000.01124.x/pdf

 

 

26. Orlinsky M, Hudson C, Chan L, Deslauriers R, Pain Comparison of Unbuffered Versus Buffered Lidocaine in Local Wound Infiltration, Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 10, No. 4, P. 411 (1992).

Full text of above article available online for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

27. Palmon SC, Lloyd AT, Kirsch R, The Effect of Needle Gauge and Lidocaine pH on Pain During Intradermal Injection, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Vol. 86, No. 2, P. 379 (1998).

Full text of above article available online for download free of charge:

http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/86/2/379.full.pdf+html

 

 

28. Sapin P, Petrozzi R, Dehmer GJ, Reduction in Injection Pain Using Buffered Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic Before Cardiac Catheterization, Catheterization and Cardiovascular Diagnosis, Vol. 23, No. 2, P. 100 (1991).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ccd.1810230206/abstract

 

 

29. Scarfone RJ, Jasani M, Gracely EJ, Pain of Local Anesthetics: Rate of Administration and Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 31, No. 1, P. 36 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

30. Steinbrook RA, Hughes N, Fanciullo G, Manzi D, Ferrante FM, Effects of Alkalinization of Lidocaine on the Pain of Skin Infiltration and Intravenous Catheterization,

Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 5, No. 6, P. 456 (1993).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

31. Jaichandran V, Vijaya L, George RJ, InderMohan B, Peribulbar Anesthesia for Cataract Surgery: Effect of Lidocaine Warming and Alkalinization on Injection Pain, Motor and Sensory Nerve Blockade, Indian Journal of Ophthalmology,

Vol. 58, No. 2, P. 105 (2010).

Full text of above article available for review free of charge:

http://www.ijo.in/article.asp?issn=0301-4738;year=2010;volume=58;issue=2;spage=105;epage=108;aulast=Jaichandran

 

 

40. Xia Y, Chen E, Tibbits DL, Reilley TE, McSweeney TD, Comparison of Effects of Lidocaine Hydrochloride, Buffered Lidocaine, Diphenhydramine, and Normal Saline After Intradermal Injection, Journal of Clinical Anesthesia, Vol. 14, No. 5,

P. 339 (2002).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

Buffered Lidocaine with Epinephrine

 

1. Bowles WH, Frysh H, Emmons R, Clinical Evaluation of Buffered Local Anesthetic, General Dentistry, Vol. 43, No. 2, P. 182 (1995).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9564364

 

 

2. Burns CA, Ferris G, Feng C, Cooper JZ, Brown MD, Decreasing the Pain of Local Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind Comparison of Buffered, Premixed 1% Lidocaine with Epinephrine Versus 1% Lidocaine Freshly Mixed with Epinephrine,

Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Vol. 54, No. 1, P. 128 (2006).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

3. Carvalho B, Fuller A, Brummel C, Cohen SE, Local Infiltration of Epinephrine- Containing Lidocaine with Bicarbonate Reduces Superficial Bleeding and Pain During Labor Epidural Catheter Insertion: A Randomized Trial, International

Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia, Vol. 16, No. 2, P. 116 (2007).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:

http://www.obstetanesthesia.com/article/S0959-289X(06)00196-8/pdf

 

 

4. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract

 

 

6. Larson PO, Ragi G, Swandby M, Darcey B, Polzin G, Carey P, Stability of Buffered Lidocaine and Epinephrine Used for Local Anesthesia, Journal of Dermatologic

Surgery and Oncology, Vol. 17, No. 5, P. 411 (1991).

Abstract of above article:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2030202

 

8. Martin AJ, pH Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, Anaesthesia, Vol. 45, P. 975 (1990).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2174653

 

 

9. Masters JE, Randomized Control Trial of pH Buffered Lignocaine with Adrenaline in Outpatient Operations, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 51, P 385 (1998).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

11. Narváez J, Wessels I, Bacon G, Chin VR, Baqai WK, Zimmerman GJ, Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Short-Term Complications When Using Buffered or Unbuffered Lidocaine 1% With Epinephrine for Blepharoplasty Surgery,

Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 26, No. 1, P. 33 (2010).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:

http://journals.lww.com/op-rs/Abstract/2010/01000/Prospective_Randomized_Evaluation_of_Short_Term.9.aspx

 

 

12. Samdal F, Arctander K, Skolleborg KC, Amland PF, Alkalisation of Lignocaine- Adrenaline Reduces the Amount of Pain During Subcutaneous Injection of Local Anaesthetic, Scandanavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery, Vol. 28, No. 1, P. 33 (1994).

Full text of the article is available for purchase and download:

http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/ftinterface~content=a785304409~fulltext=713240930~frm=content

 

 

15. Vossinakis IC, Stavroulaki P, Paleochorlidis I, Badras LS, Reducing the Pain Associated with Local Anaesthetic Infiltration for Open Carpal Tunnel Decompression, Journal of Hand Surgery (British Volume), Vol. 29B, No. 4, P. 399 (2004).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

16. Whitcomb M, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein J, Beck M, A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1 : 100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks,

Anesthesia Progress, Vol. 57, No. 2, P. 59 (2010).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.anesthesiaprogress.org/doi/full/10.2344/0003-3006-57.2.59

 

 

18. Younis I, Bhutiani RP, Taking the ‘Ouch’ Out - Effect of Buffering Commercial Xylocaine on Infiltration and Procedure Pain – A Prospective, Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England,

Vol. 86, No. 3, P. 213 (2004).

Available for download free of charge:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1964174/pdf/15140310.pdf

 

 

19. Yuen VH, Dolman PJ, Comparison of Three Modified Lidocaine Solutions for Use in Eyelid Anesthesia, Ophthalmic Plastic Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 15, No. 2, P. 143 (1999).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://journals.lww.com/op-rs/secure/pages/purchase.aspx?an=00002341-199903000-00016

 

 

Buffered Mepivacaine

 

1. Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988).

Abstract of above article available online:

http://www.annemergmed.com/article/S0196-0644(88)80293-2/abstract

 

 

Metastudies on Buffering and Injection Pain

 

1. Boyd R, Plain or Buffered Lignocaine for Local Anesthetic, Best Evidence Topics, BET No. 102 (2001).

Full text of above article available for review online:

http://www.bestbets.org/bets/bet.php?id=102

 

 

2. Davies RJ, Buffering the Pain of Local Anaesthetics: A Systematic Review, Emergency Medicine, Vol. 15, P. 81 (2003).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1442-2026.2003.00413.x/full

 

 

Buffering and Warming

 

1. Brogan GX, Biaruusso E, Hollander JE, Cassara G, Maranga MC, Thode HC, Comparison of Plain, Warmed, and Buffered Lidocaine for Anesthesia of Traumatic Wounds, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 2, P. 121 (1995).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

2. Colaric KB, Overton DT, Moore K, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic, American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 16, No. 4, P. 353 (1998).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

3. Mader TJ, Playe SJ, Reducing the Pain of Local Anesthetic Infiltration: Warming and Buffering Have Synergistic Effect, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 23,

No. 3, P. 550 (1994).

Full text of above article available for purchase online:

http://www.sciencedirect.com

 

 

4. Fitton AR, Ragbir M, Milling AP, The Use of pH Adjusted Lignocaine in Controlling Operative Pain in the Day Surgery Unit: A Prospective Randomized Trial, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 49, P. 404 (1996).

Full text of above article available for purchase and download:

http://www.sciencedirect.com