References

 

 

1 Momsen OH, Roman CM, Mohammed BA, Andersen G, Neutralization of Lidocaine-Adrenaline, A Simple Method for Less Painful Application of Local Anesthesia, Ugeskr Laeger, Vol. 162, No. 33, P. 4391 (2000).

 

2 Bowles WH, Frysh H, Emmons R, Clinical Evaluation of Buffered Local Anesthetic, General Dentistry, Vol. 43, No. 2, P. 182 (1995).

 

3 Lugo-Janer G, Padial M, Sanchez JL, Less Painful Alternatives for Local Anesthesia, J Dermatol Surg Oncol, vol. 19, pp. 237-40 (1993).

 

4 Christoph RA, Buchannan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P 117 (1988).

 

5 Vossinakis IC, Stavroulaki P, Paleochorlidis I, Badras LS, Reducing the Pain Associated with Local Anesthetic Infiltration for Open Carpal Tunnel Decompression, British Journal of Hand Surgery, Vol. 4, No. 29B, P. 399 (2004).

 

6 Samdahl F, Arctander K, Skollborg K, Amland PF, Alakalization of Lignocane-Adrenaline Reduces the Amount of Pain During Subcutaneous Injection of Local Anesthetic, Scandanavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Hand Surgery, Vol. 28, P. 33 (1994).

 

7 Martin AJ, pH-Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, Anesthesia, P. 975, Vol. 45 (1990) (pH 3,76).

 

8 Masters JE, Randomized Control Trial of pH-buffered Lignocaine with Adrenaline in Outpatient Operations, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, P. 385, Vol. 51 (1998) (pH 3.51).

 

9 McKay W, Morris R, Mushlin P, Sodium Bicarbonate Attenuates Pain on Skin Infiltration, Anesth Analg, vol. 66, pp. 572-74 (1987).

 

10 Younis I, Bhutiani RP, Taking the ’Ouch’ Out - Effect of Buffering Commercial Xylocaine on Infiltration and Procedure Pain - a Prospective, Randomised, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial, Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, Vol 86, P. 213 (2004).

 

11 Fitton AR, Ragbir M, Milling AP, The Use of pH Adjusted Lignocaine in Controlling Operative Pain in the Day Surgery Unit: A Prospective, Randomized Trial, British Journal of Plastic Surgery, Vol. 49, P. 404 (1996).

 

12 Metzinger SE, Rigby PL, Bailey DJ, Brousse RG, Local Anesthetic in Blepharoplasty, A New Look?, Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 87, No. 2, P. 225 (1994).

 

13 Carvalho B, Fuller A, Brummel C, Cohen SE, Local Infiltration of Epinephrine-Containing Lidocaine with Bicarbonate Reduces Superficial Bleeding and Pain During Labor Epidural Catheter Insertion: A Randomized Trial, Intern J Obstetric Anesth, Vol 16, P. 116 (2007).

 

14 Yuen VH, Dolman PJ, Comparison of Three Modified Lidocaine Solutions for Use in Eyelid Anesthesia, Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 15, No. 2, P 143 (1999).

 

15 Talu H, Elibol O, Yanyali A, Karabas L, Alp B, Caglar Y, Effect of Warming and Buffering Lidocaine on Pain During Facial Anesthesia, Annals of Ophthalmology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 43-47 (2001).

 

16 Burns CA, Ferris G, Feng C, Cooer JZ, Brown MD, Decreasing the Pain of Local Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind Comparison of Buffered Premixed 1% Lidocaine with Epinephrine Versus 1% Lidocaine Freshly Mixed with Epinephrine, Journal of the Am. Academy of Derm., Vol. 54, No. 1, P. 128 (2006).

 

17 Stewart JH, Cole GW, Klein JA, Neutralized Lidocaine with Epinephrine for Local Anesthesia, J Dermatol Surg Oncol, vol. 15, no. 10, p. 1081 (1989).

 

18 Primosch RE, Robinson L, Pain Elicited During Intraoral Infiltration with Buffered Lidocaine, American Journal of Dentistry, Vol. 9, No. 1, P. 5 (1996);

 

19 Whitcomb M, Drum M, Reader A, Nusstein M, Beck M, A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks, Anesthesia Progress, Vol. 57, P. 59 (2010).

 

20 Nuttal GA, Barnett MR, Smith RL, Blue TK, Clark KR, Payton BW, Establishing Intravenous Success, a Study of Local Anesthetic Efficacy, Anesth Analg, vol. 77, pp. 950-53 (1993).

 

21 Erramouspe, Buffering Local Anesthetic Solutions with Sodium Bicarbonate: Literature Review and Commentary, Hosp Pharm, vol. 31, no. 10 (1996);

 

22 Ruegg TA, Curran CR, Lamb TL, Use of Buffered Lidocaine in Bone Marrow Biopsies: A Randomized, Controlled Trial, Oncology Nursing Forum, Vol. 39, No. 1, P. 52 (2009).

 

23 Masters, et al, Randomized Control Trial of pH-buffered Lignocaine with Adrenaline in Outpatient Operations, supra;

 

24 Hinshaw KD, Fiscella R, Sugar J, Preparation of pH Adjusted Local Anesthetics, , Ophthalmic Surgery, P. 194, Vol. 26, No. 3, (1996)(pH 3.74);

 

25 Martin AJ, pH-Adjustment and Discomfort Caused by the Intradermal Injection of Lignocaine, , Anesthesia, P. 975, Vol. 45 (1990) (pH 3,76);

 

26 Ikuta Pt, Raza SM, Duranni Z, Vasireddy AR; Winnie AP, Masters RW, pH Adjustment Schedule for the Amide Local Anesthetics, Regional Anesthesia, P. 229, Vol. 14, No. 5 (1989) (pH 3.9).

 

27 Joseph RS, McDonald SB, Facilitating the Onset of Regional Blocks, Techniques in Regional Anesth and Pain Mgmt, P. 110, Vol. 8, No. 3 (2004) (pH 4.1).

 

28 Crews JC, Clark RB, Effect of Alkalinization on the pH of Local Anesthetic Solutions, Anesthesia and Analgesia, P. 1196, Vol. 66 (1987) (pH 4.16).

 

29 Kennedy RM, Luhman JD, The ‘Outchless Emergency Department’, Getting Closer: Advances in Decreasing Distress During Painful Procedures in the Emergency Department, Pediatric Clinics of North America, Vol. 46, No. 6, P. 1220 (1999).

 

30 Bartfield, Buffered Lidocaine as a Local Anesthetic: An Investigation of Shelf Life, Annals of Emergency Medicine, , Vol. 21, No. 1, P. 24 (1992).

 

31 Gupta RP, Kapoor G, Safety and Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Hyaluronidase in Peribulbar Anesthesia, Medical Journal Armed Forces India, Vol. 62, P. 116 (2006).

 

32 Burmeister CH, A Practical Method for the Extemporaneous Preparation of a Buffered Anesthetic Solution, Journal of the American Dental Association, Vol. 22, P. 1514 (1935), citing Laewen A, München Med. Wchnschr., P. 2044 (1910).

 

33 Hille B, The pH Dependent Rate of Action of Local Anesthetics on the Node of Ranvier, The Journal of General Physiology, Vol. 69, P. 475 (1977).

 

34 Mehta R, Verma DD, Gupta V, Gurwara AK, The Effect of Alakalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride on Brachial Plexus Block, Indian Journal of Anesthesia, Vol. 47, No. 4, (2003). See also, Difazio CA, Carron H, Grosslight KR, Moscicki JC, Bolding WR, Johns RA, Comparison of pH-Adjusted Lidocaine Solutions for Epidural Anesthesia, Anesthesia and Analgesia, Vol. 65, P. 760 (1986); Fitton et al, supra.

 

35 Bonhomme L, Postaire E, Touratier S, Benhamou D, Martre-Savageon H, Preaux N, Chemical Stability of Lignocaine (Lidocaine) and Adrenaline (Epinephrine) in pH Adjusted Parenteral Solutions, Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Vol. 13, P. 257 (1988).

 

36 Gardner JH, Semb J, The Relation of pH and Surface Tension to the Activity of Local Anesthetics, Journalof Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 54, P. 309 (1935),

 

37 Tuckley JM, The Pharmacology of Local Anesthetics, Update in Anesthesia, Vol. 4, No. 7 (1994).

 

38 Mehta et al, The Effect of Alakalinization of Lignocaine Hydrochloride on Brachial Plexus Block, supra; see also, Difazio et al, Comparison of pH-Adjusted Lidocaine Solutions for Epidural Anesthesia, supra; and Fitton et al, The Use of pH Adjusted Lignocaine in Controlling Operative Pain in the Day Surgery Unit: A Prospective, Randomized Trial, supra.

 

39 Talu, et al, Effect of warming and buffering lidocaine on pain during facial anesthesia, supra.

 

40 Richtsmeier, et al, Buffered Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Prior to Hemodialysis, J Pain and Sympt Man, vol 10(3), p.198 (1998).

 

41 Burns et al, Decreasing the Pain of Local Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind Comparison of Buffered Premixed 1% Lidocaine with Epinephrine Versus 1% Lidocaine Freshly Mixed with Epinephrine, supra.

 

42 Ackerman WE, Ware TR, Juneja M, The Air-Liquid Interface and the pH and PCO2 of Alkalinized Local Anaesthetic Solutions, Canadian Journal of Anaesthesiology, Vol. 39, No. 4, P. 387 (1992).

 

43 Catchlove RFH, The Influence of C02 and pH on Local Anesthetic Action, The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Vol. 181, No. 2, P. 208 (1972).

 

44 Condouris GA, Shakalis A, Potentialtion of the Nerve-Depressant Effect of Local Anesthetics by Carbon Dioxide, Nature, Vol. 204, No. 4953, P. 57 (1964).

 

45 See also, Otsuguro K, Yasutake S, Yoshihiko Y, Ban M, Ohta T, Ito S, Why Does Carbon Dioxide Produce Analgesia? AATEX, Vol. 14, P. 101 (2007).

 

46 Catchlove, The Influence of C02 and pH on Local Anesthetic Action.

 

47 Id.

 

48 Talu, et al, Effect of Warming and Buffering Lidocaine on Pain During Facial Anesthesia, supra.

 

49 Richtsmeier, et al, Buffered Lidocaine for Skin Infiltration Prior to Hemodialysis, supra.

 

50 Burns et al, Decreasing the Pain of Local Anesthesia: A Prospective, Double-Blind Comparison of Buffered Premixed 1% Lidocaine with Epinephrine Versus 1% Lidocaine Freshly Mixed with Epinephrine, supra

 

51 Ikuta PT, Raza SM, Durrani Z, Vasireddy AR, Winnie AP, Masters R, pH Adjustment Schedule for the Amide Local Anesthetics, Regional Anesthesia, Vol. 14, No. 5, P. 232 (1989).

 

52 Christoph RA, Buchanan L, Begalla K, Schwartz S, Pain Reduction in Local Anesthetic Administration Through pH Buffering, Emergency Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 2, P. 27 (1988). For other articles recommending immediate of local anesthetic use after buffering, see: Erramouspe J, Buffering Local Anesthetic Solutions with Sodium Bicarbonate, Literature Review and Commentary, Hospital Pharmacy, Vol. 31, No. 10, P. 1275 (1996); Armel HE, Horowitz M, Alkalinization of Local Anesthesia with Sodium Bicarbonate - Preferred Method of Local Anesthesia, Urology, Vol. 43, No.1, P. 101 (1994).